Integrating Technology With Instructional Frameworks to Support all Learners in Inclusive Classrooms
Keywords:inclusion, technology, UDL, RTI, virtual, screening, assessment, intervention
In Ontario, as the number of students requiring special education support continues to rise, the transition to inclusive classrooms has become more challenging for teachers due to limited time and lack of resources and support in the classrooms. However, this study explored how eight elementary school teachers addressed these obstacles in their successful transitions to inclusion through the integration of technology, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and the Response to Intervention (RTI) frameworks in both online and physical classrooms. Through online interviews and classroom observations, the teachers orally shared and demonstrated how technology could increase student engagement, differentiate instruction, provide students with alternative instruction and assessment methods, and build teacher capacity within the classrooms. Despite this successful integration of technology and instructional frameworks, inefficiencies were revealed in screening approaches and teachers’ access to streamlined assessment resources to identify the needs of students. A discussion examined the teachers’ barriers in supporting the needs of all learners with proposed technology-based considerations that may assist other teachers in their transitions to inclusive classrooms.
Alahmari, A. (2019). A review and synthesis of the response to intervention (RTI) literature teachers’ implementations and perceptions. International Journal of Special Education. Vol. 33, No.4, 2019.
Basham, M.I, Graden, J, Poth, R. & Winston, M. (2010). A comprehensive approach to RTI: embedding universal design for learning and technology. Learning Disability Quarterly. Volume 33, Fall 2010. https://doi.org/10.1177/073194871003300403
Bjekic, D., Obradovic, S., Vucetic, M. & Bojovic, M. (2014). E-teacher in inclusive e-education for students with specific learning disabilities. Science Direct. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 128 (2014) 128 –133.
Brackenreed, D. (2011). Inclusive education: Identifying teachers’ strategies for coping with perceived stressors in inclusive classrooms. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, Issue #122, June 23, 2011.
Canadian Research Center on Inclusive Education. (2021). Understanding inclusive education. Western University. https://www.inclusiveeducationresearch.ca/about/inclusion.html
CAST (2018). Universal design for learning guidelines version 2.2. http://udlguidelines.cast.org
Cowan, C., & Maxwell, G. (2015). Educators' perceptions of response to intervention implementation and impact on student learning. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 16.
Coy, K., Marino, M., & Serianni, B. (2014). Using universal design for learning in synchronous online instruction. Journal of Special Education Technology. Volume 29, No. 1. https://doi.org/10.1177/016264341402900105
Desire to Learn (D2L) (n.d.). Brightspace core. https://www.d2l.com/k-12/products/core/
Dolighan, T. & Owen, M. (2021). Teacher efficacy for online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. Brock Education Journal. 2021 Vol. 30. https://doi.org/10.26522/brocked.v30i1.851
Froese-Germain, B., Riel, R. & McGahey, B. (2012). Class size and student diversity: Two sides of the same coin. Canadian Teacher Federation. January 12, 2012.
Goodrow, M. A. (2016). A study of teachers' challenges with the inclusion of middle and high school students with autism. Walden University Scholars Works, pg. 65-66. https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=3760&context=dissertations
Greenwood, C.R., Carta, J.C, Kelley, E.S., Guerrero, G., Kong, N. Atwater, J., & Goldstein, H. (2016). Systematic replication of the effects of a supplementary, technology-assisted, storybook intervention for preschool children with weak vocabulary and comprehension skills. The Elementary School Journal Volume 116, Number 4.
Hall, T., Vue, G., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (2004). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. http://aem.cast.org/about/publications/2003/ncac-differentiated-instruction-udl.html
Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M., and Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. 3rd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Nabiullina, R.K. (2015). The principle of humanism- The fundamental principle of inclusive education. Review of European Studies; Vol. 7, No. 4; 2015.
National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD). (n.d). Progress monitoring within a response to intervention model. http://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/research/progress-monitoring-within-a-rti-model
National Center on Response to Intervention. (2010). Essential components of RTI. American Institutes for Research. https://rti4success.org/essential-components-rti
Nepo, K. (2016). The use of technology to improve education. Child Youth Care Forum. Springer.
Ok, M.W., & Rao, K. (2019). Digital tools for the inclusive classroom: Google Chrome as assistive and instructional technology. Journal of Special Education Technology, Vol. 34(3) 204-211.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2005). Education for all. Expert Panel on Literacy and Numeracy Instruction for Students With Special Education Needs. http://www.oafccd.com/documents/educationforall.pdf
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2013). Learning for all: A guide to effective assessment and instruction for all students, Kindergarten to Grade 12. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/elemsec/speced/LearningforAll2013.pdf
Ontario Teacher’s Federation. (2016). The meaningful collaborative assessment and feedback strategies. https://www.otffeo.on.ca/en/learning/tlc/report/the-meaningful-collaborative-assessment-and-feedback-strategies
Parekh, G. (2013). A case for inclusion. Toronto District School Board. Toronto, Ontario.
People for Education (2019). Annual report on schools. What makes a school? https://peopleforeducation.ca/report/2019-annual-report-on-schools-what-makes-a-school/#chapter5
Preston, A.I., Wood, C.L. & Stecker, P.M. (2016). Response to intervention: Where it came from and where it's going, Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth. 60:3, 173-82. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2015.1065399
Rogers, C. R. (1995). Way of being. Houghton Mifflin.
Sharpe, S. (2019). Examining Google Classroom capabilities to help to provide principles of universal design for learning. https://research.library.mun.ca/13935/1/thesis.pdf
Smith Canter, L., King, L., Williams, J., Metcalf, D., & Myrick Potts, K. (2017). Evaluating pedagogy and practice of universal design for learning in public schools. Exceptionality Education International. Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 1–16. https://doi.org/10.5206/eei.v27i1.7743
Spencer, S. (2011). Universal design for learning: Assistance for teachers in today’s inclusive classrooms. Interdisciplinary Journal of Teaching and Learning, Volume 1, Number 1.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2014). Differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. ASCD.
Yin, R. (2018). Case study research and applications: Design and methods. Sage Publications. 2018. 6th Edition.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Diane Montgomery
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors contributing to the OTESSA Journal agree to release their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. This licence allows this work to be copied, distributed, remixed, transformed, and built upon for any purpose provided that appropriate attribution is given, a link is provided to the license, and changes made were indicated.
Authors retain copyright of their work and grant the OTESSA Journal right of first publication.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in the OTESSA Journal.